This course develops an understanding of the major theoretical orientations used by current practitioners, focusing on systemic approaches. Established schools of thought, the recover model, evidence-based and promising practices, and their immediate descendants are presented through lectures, videotapes, reflection, application via clinical case presentations, and experiential learning. The course also highlights cultural and spiritual diversity as it applies to the therapeutic process and awareness of the self, interpersonal issues, and spiritual values as they impact the use of theoretical frameworks. This course is taken during the first year of the doctoral program and is foundational to the curriculum. As such, subsequent coursework builds upon the knowledge, concepts, and skills introduced in this course.