The Azusa Pacific University Department of History and Political Science requires that students cite sources used in research papers according to the guidelines in Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (University of Chicago Press), and The Chicago Manual of Style. What follows are basic guidelines for citing sources in footnotes and bibliographic lists. Use the links for further information and to see examples of how to cite specific books or articles.


Plagiarism may be defined as presenting the words or ideas of another author as your own, either intentionally or unintentionally. You are free to quote or refer to the ideas of others in research papers, provided you cite the source of the quotation or idea. Use a footnote to indicate the source for the following:

  • when you borrow a direct quote from another source. If the quote amounts to fewer than three lines in your paper, use quotation marks. If using a quotation that will amount to more than three lines in your paper, use a block quotation (indented one inch on each side, single-spaced, with no quotation marks).
  • when you paraphrase, that is to say, when you restate the ideas of another author in your own words.

Bibliographic Citations

A bibliography is a list of the sources used in researching the topic. It serves not only as a list of the works cited, but may also include helpful resources so the reader may find more information on the topic. Entries in the bibliography are arranged alphabetically by author's/editor's last name, and indented after the first line.


Last name, First name Middle Initial. Title. City: Publisher, year published.

West, John G., Jr. The Politics of Revelation and Reason. Wichita: University Press of Kansas, 1996.
Wyden, Peter. Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979.

Footnote Citations

Footnotes are citations within a document that appear as a footer at the bottom of each page. The format differs from bibliographic citations. Note that you should indent the first line only. Endnotes fulfill the same function as footnotes, and follow the same format, but appear together at the end of the paper.


The basic format for footnotes and endnotes is as follows:

Author's first name Middle Initial. Last name, Book Title (City: Publisher, year published), page #s.

1) Richard Bernstein and Ross H. Munro, The Coming Conflict with China (New York: Vintage Books, 1998), 234.
2) Peter Wyden, Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979), 179.

Further information on Turabian

Documentation Guide:

Internet Citation:

Note: This information is current for the 2017-18 academic year; however, all stated academic information is subject to change. Please refer to the current Academic Catalog for more information.